FOCUS ON AFRICA
Twelve Reasons for Africa to Reject GM Crops
Article from Seedling Magazine (published by GRAIN).
17 August 2004
Africa is in danger of becoming the dumping ground for the struggling GM industry and the laboratory for frustrated scientists. The proponents of GM technology sell a sweet message of GM crops bringing the second green revolution and the answer to African hunger, but a closer look makes it clear that GM crops have no place in African agriculture.
The push to bring genetically modified (GM) crops into African agriculture is not letting up, even as (and partly because) the GM industry is faltering in much of the world. A growing list of organisations, networks and lobby groups with close ties to the GM industry are working to promote GM agriculture on the continent. GM crops are so far only commercially available in South Africa, but there have been field trials in Kenya, Egypt and Burkina Faso, and also in Senegal and Zimbabwe where there was no public knowledge or regulatory oversight. At least12 African countries are carrying out research on GM crops, including Egypt, Uganda, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia and Cameroon, and a long list of GM crops are in the pipeline for introduction in various African countries (see map). Theres also concern that GM crops are coming in by way of food imports and seed smuggling, even for countries that have taken measures to prevent imports of GM food, such as Zambia, Angola, Sudan, and Benin.
In short, Africa is in danger of becoming the dumping ground for the struggling GM industry and the laboratory for frustrated GM scientists. The proponents of GM technology sell a sweet message of GM crops as the second green revolution and the answer to African hunger, but the reality is quite different. A close look at GM crops and the context under which they are developed makes it clear that GM crops have no place in African agriculture. Here are twelve reasons why:
1. GM Crops will contaminate non-GM crops; co-existence is not possible
GM crops are plants and, as such, they cannot be easily controlled. Pollen can travel long distances by way of wind and insects. Human error and curiosity or simply regular farming practices also help seed to spread. GM crops can therefore never co-exist with non-GM crops of the same species without the risk of contaminating them, especially in Africa where tight controls over seeds and farming is unrealistic. This contamination would have serious implications for small-scale farmers. For instance, it would endanger the indigenous seeds that these farmers have developed over centuries and that they trust and know. Farmers with contaminated fields could also end up being forced to pay royalties to the companies that own the patents on the GM crops that contaminated their fields.
2. GM crops will foster dependence on a corporate seed supply.
Most GM seed manufacturing companies prohibit farmers from saving their on-farm produced seeds for the next season and from sharing them with their neighbours, relatives and friends. This is imposed through elaborate contracts, agreements, and conditions, which are imposed by the multinational GM seed companies. More than 80% of the small-scale farmers in Africa today save their on-farm produced seeds for the next season. Farmers sometimes do this because they do not have enough money to buy new seeds and sometimes because they value their own seed. Also, seed sharing (with neighbours, relatives and friends) is a cultural norm in many African communities. The introduction of GM seeds will jeopardise these traditional and vital practices.
3. GM crops will usher in Terminator and Traitor technologies.
Terminator and Traitor technologies are two examples of Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs). Terminator seeds are genetically modified so that the plants that they grow into produce sterile seeds (seeds that are infertile cannot germinate in the next season or any other time). Traitor technology produces GM crops that need to be sprayed with certain chemicals in order to grow properly. It is important to note that these technologies are targeted specifically at developing countries but offer no positive benefit to farmers at all. GURT technologies will cause African farmers to become wholly dependent on companies for their seed supply and for the costly chemicals that their seeds will not be able to grow without. The technologies promise rich rewards for the multinational companies, but they spell doom for small-scale farmers in Africa.
4. GM crops will increase the use of chemicals
More than 70 % of all the GM crops currently grown in the world are genetically modified to resist certain herbicides. Farmers that grow these GM crops must use the herbicides sold by the very companies selling the GM seeds. Not surprisingly, studies show that these crops are increasing the use of herbicides, especially as certain weeds develop resistance to the herbicide. Once again, the GM seeds promises huge profits for multinational corporations, but only increasing costs for small-scale farmers in Africa.
5. GM crops are patented
Transnational corporations own nearly 100% of the agricultural biotechnology patents and the majority of these patents are controlled by a handful of pesticide corporations. These companies will use their patents to block research that does not suit their interests and to trap farmers into paying them royalties every year on seeds and into a never-ending dependence on their chemical inputs.
6. GM crops favour industrial agriculture systems
They are designed for agricultural systems characterised by
· Large farms: In Africa, 80% of the population are small-scale farmers with 0.53 acres of land. Appropriate agricultural technologies should help small-scale farmers to diversify and intensify their on-farm enterprises.
· Monocropping: Due to the small size of farms and challenging environmental conditions, monocropping is not favourable to African agriculture.
· Subsidies: While the farmers in the west are highly subsidised, African farmers do not get any subsidies and cannot even recoup the cost of their crops production.
· Mechanisation: While farming in the developed countries is highly mechanised, most African farmers depend on human and animal power.
· Reliance on external inputs: African farmers cannot afford the high cost of inputs that accompany the growing of transgenic crops. This is one of the main reasons for the failure of the green revolution in Africa.
7. GM crops threaten organic and sustainable farming.
Most of the farmers in Africa practice organic agriculture (by default or by choice). Genetic engineering poses a great threat to such farmers in several ways, including the following:
· Many farmers in Africa rely on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a microbe found in the soil that farmers can use as a natural insecticide. The toxin-producing genes of Bt have also been genetically modified into certain crops so that these GM crops constantly express the Bt toxin. The widespread growing of GM Bt crops will encourage the development of resistance to Bt among important crop pests, thus rendering this natural insecticide useless.
· Organic farmers practice mixed cropping and crop rotation. These practices will be threatened by herbicide-tolerant GM crops, which use broad-based herbicides that kill all plants, not just the weeds that farmers may not want.
· Natural fertility is a key factor in organic/sustainable agriculture. Th
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