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Vitamin A boosted without GM (30/1/2008)

1.Scientists Boost Vitamin A levels in Corn Without GM
2.Non-GM protein rich corn developed

EXTRACTS: A variety of corn with extra protein developed by scientists in Uttarakhand may be the first of a series of designer crops that India plans to develop without genetic modification involving alien genes. (item 2)

Buckler says that his team's method for analyzing the genetic makeup of corn is 'much simpler and faster and up to 1,000-fold cheaper' than running the types of chemical tests that were previously available for identifying corn high in vitamin A precursors. He expects it to significantly accelerate the vitamin biofortification of corn crops [without GM]. (item 1)

NOTE: Given all the land races of rice in India and SE Asia this type of MAS-based identification of high vit A rice should be possible and indeed a scientist from the biotech company Syngenta has previously admitted to the BBC: 'All the genes are present in rice. One could make a non-GM vitamin-A rice simply by studying those genes in a more focused way.' (Mirage of GM's Golden Promise) http://www.lobbywatch.org/archive2.asp?arcid=2620

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1.New Method for Producing High-Vitamin Corn Could Improve Nutrition in Developing Countries
National Science Foundation press release
http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=110998&org=NSF&from=news.

[Photo Caption: Because of its genetic makeup, some corn crops contain particularly high levels of vitamin A precursors. Scientists have found a simpler and cheaper method to find these high-vitamin corn crops. Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation]

Scientists at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS)[the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency] and Cornell University have discovered how to amplify the vitamin A content of corn, providing a powerful new tool in the fight against deficiencies in dietary vitamin A.

Such deficiencies cause eye diseases, including blindness, in 40 million children annually, and increased health risks for about 250 million people, mostly in developing countries.

In the course of their research, the scientists have discovered 'a new method of analyzing the genetic makeup of corn that will enable developing countries to identify and increase cultivation of corn that has naturally high levels of vitamin A precursors,' says Ed Buckler, a co-leader of the research team from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service and Cornell University, in a National Science Foundation press release.

Corn is an essential part of the diets of hundreds of millions of people around the world, many of whom live in developing countries. It is the dominant subsistence crop in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, where 17 to 30 percent of children under age five are vitamin A deficient, says Buckler.

Regular consumption of adequate quantities of corn high in vitamin A precursors, which are converted in the human body into vitamin A, would reduce vitamin A deficiencies and associated health problems.

Buckler says that his team's method for analyzing the genetic makeup of corn is 'much simpler and faster and up to 1,000-fold cheaper' than running the types of chemical tests that were previously available for identifying corn high in vitamin A precursors. He expects it to significantly accelerate the vitamin biofortification of corn crops.

This new method of increasing cultivation of high-vitamin corn is designed to tap the natural genetic diversity of corn. It was developed by a team led by Buckler and Torbert Rocheford of the University of Illinois, and was partially funded by The National Science Foundation (NSF). It will be described in the January 18, 2007 edition of Science.

'In a field of thousands of ears of corn, each ear has a slightly different genetic makeup and resulting differences in physical characteristics, including levels of vitamin A precursors -- just like every person in a crowd has a slightly different genetic makeup and associated physiological differences,' explains James Collins, assistant director for the Biological Sciences Directorate at NSF.

But only a very small percentage of corn crops are genetically programmed to have naturally high levels of vitamin A precursors, and these high-vitamin ears cannot be identified merely by visual inspection. 'Therefore, identifying crops that have high levels of vitamin A precursors has traditionally been like finding a needle in a haystack.'

However, the team led by Buckler and Rocheford has significantly simplified the task of sifting through that proverbial haystack. They did so by identifying genetic markers in corn associated with high levels of vitamin A precursors. These markers can be used by 'scientists working in very basic labs in developing countries to quickly screen for local corn strains that are high in vitamin A precursors,' says Buckler. Then, these high-vitamin strains may be bred, cultivated and consumed by local people.

The Buckler and Rocheford team is currently working with various international organizations to help train plant breeders in developing countries to use their techniques.

Buckler says that this new method of increasing cultivation of high-vitamin corn was made possible by recent breakthroughs in statistical analyses and the advent of rapid DNA sequencers -- instruments that are used to automate genetic profiling of crops. The researchers expect this new method to have broad applications beyond corn improvement.

Media Contacts:
Lily Whiteman, National Science Foundation (703) 292-8310 lwhitema@nsf.gov or
Susan Lane, Cornell University (607) 256-3613
ssl4@cornell.edu
Program Contacts:
Jane Silverthorne, National Science Foundation (703) 292-8470
jsilvert@nsf.gov
Co-Investigators:
Torbert Rocheford, University of Illinoiis (217) 333-9643 Trochefo@uiuc.edu or
Ed Buckler, USDA, Agricultural Research Service and Cornell University (607) 255-4620 esb33@cornell.edu

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering, with an annual budget of $5.92 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to over 1,700 universities and institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 42,000 competitive requests for funding, and makes over 10,000 new funding awards. The NSF also awards over $400 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

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2.Bred: protein-rich corn as good as milk
G.S. MUDUR The Telegraph (India), Jan 22 2008
http://www.telegraphindia.com/1080

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